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Robertson Geo's PS Logger Probe is a low-frequency acoustic sonde designed to measure compressional (P) and shear-wave (S) velocities in soils and soft rock formations. It operates using indirect excitation rather than mode conversion as in a conventional ... Moresonic. It is capable of acquiring high resolution P and S wave data in borehole depths of up to 600m in water.

The PS Logger probe contains a unique design of powerful hammer source and two receivers, separated by acoustic damping tubes. To acquire data, the probe is stopped at the required depth and the source is fired under surface command. Firing causes a solenoid-operated shuttle aligned across the borehole axis to strike plates on opposite sides of the probe in turn, setting up a pressure doublet in the surrounding fluid. The resultant fluid motion produces a tube wave at the borehole wall with velocity close to the shear velocity of the formation together with a compressional wave.

As the waves propagate parallel to the borehole axis, they set up corresponding fluid movements that are detected by the two neutral buoyancy 3D hydrophone receivers and geophones, allowing the wave velocity to be determined. The facility to stack multiple shots and filter the data as in normal seismic data acquisition is included in the operating software.
The Flat Dilatometer (DMT) is an in situ test for the determination of various key soil parameters used for geotechnical design. The test is rapid, accurate, simple and cost-effective. The results are highly repeatable and independent from the operator. ... MoreThe blade may be advanced with most common field machines, including penetrometers and drill rigs. DMT measurements are performed in situ, directly on the soil in its original position and state. This eliminates the disturbance caused by drilling, sampling and transport to laboratory. The profiles of the results are available real time during test execution. The direct measurement of soil deformation enables accurate estimations of the elastic modulus. The KD parameter provides stress history information of the soil, a very difficult property to estimate with other testing methods.

Main Applications

Main Applications

Soil stratigraphy

Stress history (OCR, K0)

Settlement prediction

Soil Improvement quantification

Slip surface detection in clayey slopes

P-y curves for laterally loaded piles

Liquefaction potential

Permeability in clay

FEM input parameters (e.g. Plaxis)

Subgrade modulus for pavements

Subgrade modulus for diaphragm walls
The Geoforce DTS® deep-tow boomer/sparker system is a high resolution sub-bottom profiler incorporating the boomer and sparker subsystems in a single tow fish. The system has been designed for use in the world’s toughest offshore environments, where ... Morereliability, ease of operation, accuracy and optimal data resolution are of paramount importance.

Geoforce Group have implemented fully digital communications between the towed equipment and topside equipment, allowing in lossless hydrophone and sensor data. The Geoforce DTS® is the only system to have two acoustic sources integrated in the same tow body, the selection of the acoustic source can be controlled by the surface interface - Geoforce Cerebella.

The evolution of the Geoforce DTS® Boomer/Sparker Sub-Bottom Profiler over more than four decades is an important case study in successful Canadian Government/Private Sector collaboration (McKeown et al, 2014). It demonstrates how a survey tool can retain its competitiveness in global seafloor mapping through continuous improvements building on the solid Huntec DTS core technology.
Geoquip Marine operates a Robertson Geo PS Logger Probe – a low-frequency acoustic sonde designed to measure compressional (P) and shear-wave (S) velocities in soils and soft rock formations. It operates using indirect excitation rather than mode conversion ... Moreas in a conventional sonic. It is capable of acquiring high resolution P and S wave data in borehole depths of up to 600m in water.

The PS Logger probe contains a unique design of powerful hammer source and two receivers, separated by acoustic damping tubes. To acquire data, the probe is stopped at the required depth and the source is fired under surface command. Firing causes a solenoid-operated shuttle aligned across the borehole axis to strike plates on opposite sides of the probe in turn, setting up a pressure doublet in the surrounding fluid. The resultant fluid motion produces a tube wave at the borehole wall with velocity close to the shear velocity of the formation together with a compressional wave.

As the waves propagate parallel to the borehole axis, they set up corresponding fluid movements that are detected by the two neutral buoyancy 3D hydrophone receivers and geophones, allowing the wave velocity to be determined. The facility to stack multiple shots and filter the data as in normal seismic data acquisition is included in the operating software.
Geoquip Marine own and operate a Geovista DPS Downhole P&S sonde which allows simultaneous measurement of P & S wave velocities within the borehole environment. It comes with one transmitter and two receiver modules. The energy source of the ... Moretransmitter operates as a dipole source. Each receiver contains two transducers, one for the detection of the compression waves (P) and the other for the detection of the shear waves (S). Each transducer responds to different frequencies. The sonde is stopped at selected depths where acoustic data is acquired in different modes that allow the determination of these P and S velocities. This is done without the need for clamping and this method gives better accuracy and resolution than other seismic methods.

The performance of the system is engineered to give good results in the slower formations encountered at shallow depths while also performing well in deeper formations with higher velocities. The data acquired by the system is recorded in the industry standard SEG2 file format, allowing many commercially available packages to read the data.
Robertson Geo's Natural Gamma Probes - Triple Gamma & Ultra-Slim Gamma Probes - measure the activities of naturally occurring or man-made isotopes. Principle of Measurement... More
The probes are based on scintillation gamma detectors which measure the natural gamma radiation released from potassium and the decay products of uranium and thorium in the borehole.
Robertson Geo's High Resolution Acoustic Televiewer (HRAT) provides a continuous high-resolution, oriented ultrasound image of the borehole wall. The probe uses a fixed acoustic transducer and a rotating acoustic mirror to scan the borehole walls with ... Morea focussed ultrasound beam. The amplitude and travel time of the reflected acoustic signal are recorded as separate image logs.

Features such as fractures reduce the reflected amplitude and appear as dark sinusoidal traces on the log. The travel time log is equivalent to a 360°-arm caliper and shows diameter changes within open fractures and 'break-outs'.

Directional information is also recorded and used to orient the images in real time.
Robertson Geo's Formation Density probe uses dual shielded detectors to provide a boreholecompensated density measurement with good bed-boundary resolution. Principle of Measurement... More
The probes contain a detachable 137Cs gamma source and two scintillation gamma detectors. The active windows of the source
and detectors are maintained in contact with the borehole wall by a motorised caliper arm. Gamma radiation back-scattered by the
formation (Compton effect) reaches the detectors where the relative count rates provide a measure of formation density.
Robertson Geo's Density Guardlog probe uses dual shielded detectors to provide a borehole compensated density measurement with good bed-boundary resolution, similar to the Formation Density probe. The Density Guardlog probe offers an additional LL3 focussed ... Moreelectrical measurement with good vertical resolution and depth of investigation.

Principle of Measurement
The Density Guardlog probe contains a detachable 137Cs gamma source and two scintillation gamma detectors. The active windows of the source and detectors are maintained in contact with the borehole wall by a motorised caliper arm. Gamma radiation back-scattered by the formation (Compton effect) reaches the detectors where the relative count rates provide a measure of formation density.
Robertson Geo's 3-Arm Caliper probe provides a single continuous log of borehole diameter, as recorded by three mechanically coupled arms in contact with the borehole wall. 710mm, 1000mm and 1500mm range calipers are available to suit a range of well ... Morediameters. The caliper is a useful first log to determine the borehole conditions before running more costly probes or those containing radioactive sources.

Principle of Measurement
Opening and closing of the motor-drivercaliper arms is by surface command, allowing the probe to run into the borehole with the arms retracted. Once opened, the spring-loaded arms respond to borehole diameter variations as the probe is raised up the borehole.
Robertson Geo's High Resolution Optical Televiewer (Hi-OPTV) provides a continuous very high resolution oriented image of the borehole walls using a conventional light source. A unique optical system based on a fisheye lens allows the probe to survey ... More360 degrees simultaneously. This information is processed in real time to produce a complete 'unwrapped' image of the borehole oriented to magnetic north. The probe offers superior resolution to the High Resolution Acoustic Televiewer (HRAT) and produces images in real colour. While, unlike the HRAT, it can operate in air-filled boreholes, it is unsuitable for boreholes containing mud or cloudy fluids.

WellCad™ Image-Processing Software
WellCad™ is a Windows-based package for processing, interpreting and displaying acoustic and optical televiewer image logs. Standard log presentations include tadpole and stick plots, stereographic projections of poles to planes and azimuth frequency diagrams. The synthetic core display allows convenient comparison of log and field data for orientation of fractured or incomplete core sections.
Studio Prof. Marchetti's Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT) Monolithic Blade Set contains all the necessary components for dilatometer and seismic dilatometer testing (S-wave) down to over 50m of soil depth. The equipment includes: ... More

Two blades

One true interval seismic probe connected monolithically to a dummy cone tip

Control Unit for automatic logging of DMT readings and for seismic data acquisition (latest edition)

Pneumatic-electric cables

Membranes

Calibration equipment

Seismic shear beam for S-wave generation

Auxiliary components, adaptors and software

Adequate set of spare parts for rapid replacement in case of damage and/or wear

Training in Rome included
nke Instrumentation's SAMBAT is an Autonomous Multiparameter Probe with Brush and Teletransmission. SAMBAT is used to measure and record the main physical water parameters (temperature, depth, conductivity for the calculation of salinity, turbidity, ... Morefluorescence, dissolved oxygen and pH) on a period of time up to several months.

SAMBAT uses a brush to protect the fluorescence, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen sensors from biofouling.
The AQUAlogger® 310TY is a compact instrument that measures turbidity to 10,000FTU (typical), with optional integral temperature and pressure sensors. It can be used in freshwater and ocean environments, with models for shallow and deep water. The logger ... Morealso features a tool to convert turbidity to suspended sediment concentration using in situ samples.
The AQUAscat® 1000R represents a new generation of high frequency acoustic instrumentation. It has applications in sediment transport studies, including measurement of suspended sediment profiles, precision altimetry, dredge plumes and turbulence.... More

The AQUAscat transmits pulses of high frequency sound on up to four transducers, each of which may operate at a different frequency. It measures the sound scattered by sediment or other suspended materials at discrete spatial intervals programmable from 2½ millimetres to 4 centimetres. For altimetry, this may span a few tens of centimetres; for monitoring sediment suspension profiles, a total range of around 1-2 metres is typical; while dredge plume estimation may extend to 10 metres. The instrument is supplied in a subsea housing suitable for long-term unattended deployments. Batteries for various deployment schedules are available to order.
The Teledyne RESON TC2122 Acoustic Transducer is a 33 kHz and 200 kHz dual-frequency transducer ideal for navigation and hydrographic echosounder systems. The transducer has excellent piezoceramic elements which will ensure the highest reliability and ... Morequality in echosounding. It's compatible with the Teledyne ATLAS Hyfrographic SW 60/28/6029 housing and Teledyne RESON steel housings.
The Teledyne Benthos ALP-365 Acoustic Locator Pinger is an advanced acoustic device that is versatile in the offshore environment. It's rugged aluminum housing ensures long life under extreme conditions. The unit is water activated.
The Teledyne Benthos ALP-365/EL Acoustic Locator Pinger is an advanced acoustic device that is versatile in the offshore environment. It uses six 9V alkaline or lithium batteries, and operates up to 180 days in extreme conditions. It has the same features ... Moreas the ALP-365, but with extended battery life. The unit is water activated.
The Teledyne Benthos ATM-920 Series Acoustic Telemetry Modems represents the next-generation in acoustic modem technology. The ATM-920 Series modem provides wireless communications in up to 2000m water, and comprises a hard-coat anodised aluminum housing, ... Moreintegrated transducer, and internal batteries.
The Teledyne Benthos R2K Mid-Water Acoustic Transponding Release is a full-function acoustic release in a rugged and compact stainless steel housing for use in depths to 2,000 m and loads up to 2,000 kg (4,400 lbs).
The EdgeTech Coastal Acoustic Transponder (CAT) is ideal for deployments in coastal environments. The acoustic command structure is the same as that used in all of our underwater acoustic releases and transponders and is unsurpassed in multi-path environments. ... More

The CAT has been designed for use as an underwater instrument location and positioning aid. They have applications as part of the recovery system on oceanographic moorings and platforms. The precision, high output power and commandable transponder feature make these instruments ideal for use with positioning systems in difficult acoustic environments.

The CAT utilises EdgeTech's field proven Binary Acoustic Command System (BACS) code structure. The BACS coding structure provides 12,000 possible secure command codes. Each transponder is factory programmed with its own unique command set which includes transponder ENABLE, DISABLE. Whenever the instrument receives a command it responds with a status reply message which indicates the orientation of the instrument (tilted or not tilted).

The transponder function can be turned on or off with the ENABLE and DISABLE commands. When disabled the transponder will not reply when interrogated. This ensures that the unit will not interfere with nearby instruments and that no battery energy is wasted replying to interrogate signals meant for other systems